US testing begins for possible coronavirus treatment as health experts predict virus will spread
(CNN) -- The first US study of a drug to treat the novel coronavirus is underway, the National Institutes of Health said Tuesday, as a federal health official warned that the virus will eventually begin spreading in US communities.
The clinical trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the antiviral drug remdesivir in adults diagnosed with coronavirus has begun at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, according to the NIH. The first participant is an American who was evacuated from the Diamond Princess cruise ship docked in Japan.
News of the start of the trial came on the same day that one of the top officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warned Americans that health experts foresee the coronavirus spreading in the United States.
"We expect we will see community spread in this country," said Dr. Nancy Messonnier, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. "It's not so much a question of if this will happen anymore, but rather more a question of exactly when this will happen and how many people in this country will have severe illness."
There have been more than 80,000 cases of coronavirus worldwide. The death toll is now more than 2,700, the majority in mainland China.
The US has now confirmed 57 cases, US health officials said Tuesday, a number that is expected to grow.
"We are asking the American public to work with us to prepare in the expectation that this could be bad," Messonnier said.
Clinical trial for a treatment
There are currently no specific medicines approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat the novel coronavirus. Without one, a top infectious disease doctor said Tuesday, the US could see mortality rates from the coronavirus similar to those in China.
The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has calculated a case fatality rate of about 2% for the novel coronavirus -- meaning about 2% of those known to be infected have died. That's higher than influenza, which is about 0.1%, but much lower than severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, (9.6%) and MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (35%).
"I think we would expect something similar to that because we don't have an antiviral drug," Dr. Anthony Fauci told CNN's Chris Cuomo Tuesday night on "Cuomo Prime Time." "The people who are dying who require intensive care, for example in an intensive care unit -- maybe even intubation for respiratory assistance in breathing -- the Chinese have that. They have a pretty good system, and yet you're still seeing the 2% mortality. ... So if, in fact, we do get a pandemic that does impact us in this country, I think you're going to see comparable types of morbidity and mortality."
Remdesivir, the drug being tested at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, was previously tested in humans for Ebola and in animals for MERS and SARS.
There are clinical trials of remdesivir going on in China, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases developed the current study to match those trials, the NIH said in its news release.
Participants in the US treatment group will receive 200 milligrams of remdesivir intravenously when they're enrolled in the study. They will receive another 100 milligrams while they are hospitalized for up to 10 days total. A placebo group will receive a solution that resembles remdesivir but contains only inactive ingredients, the NIH said.
US cases rise to 57
The number of coronavirus cases in the United States rose to 57 on Tuesday, with four more patients who were on a cruise ship, the CDC said.
The current total breaks down to 40 passengers who were aboard the Diamond Princess cruise ship that was traveling in Asia, three people repatriated from China, and 14 US cases.
Of the 14 US cases, eight are in California, two in Illinois and one each in Massachusetts, Washington, Arizona and Wisconsin.
The CDC is employing a twofold approach, working to contain the virus while also implementing strategies to lessen the impacts on communities, Messonnier told reporters.
"We've also enacted the first quarantine of this scale in the US, and are supporting the State Department and (Department of Health and Human Services) in repatriating citizens from high-risk areas," she said.
In addition, the center is tracking and isolating cases when it can, issuing travel advisories for affected countries and taking on the increasingly difficult task of preventing the introduction of new cases, most notably at points of entry into the United States, she said.
Messonnier described the containment strategies as "largely successful" and said they were geared toward "buying us more time to prepare."
What to look for and what to do
The symptoms of coronavirus are similar to those of a common cold. The virus usually causes a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illness, with symptoms including a runny nose, cough, sore throat, possibly a headache and maybe a fever, which can last for a couple of days.
For those with a weakened immune system, the elderly and the very young, there's a chance the virus could cause a lower, and much more serious, respiratory tract illness such as pneumonia or bronchitis.
People may be able to reduce their risk of infection by avoiding those who are sick, avoiding touching their eyes, nose and mouth, and washing hands often with soap and water and for at least 20 seconds.
Most of the time, symptoms will go away on their own and experts advise seeking care early. People with symptoms that feel worse than a standard cold should see their doctor.
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